Angry parties will appeal to the very large constituencies, especially of white, middle aged, men, who feel betrayed and left behind by the decline of routine, industrial work in traditional masculine communities. Angry parties will trade in betrayal and outrage, anger and fury, with social media increasingly feeding real world violence.
These angry parties will come from the nationalistic, populist right: Donald Trump is a prime example but one of the most successful is the Danish People’s Part which has risen from nowhere to become the country’s main part. Angry parties also come from the left: from Occupy to the Idignados, Podemos to Five Star, fed by the disenchantment of a thwarted millennial generation. The let down and the left out are not going away. Nor is angry politics: if you face an existential crisis, do not go quietly; rage against the dying of the light.